Compromiso e involucramiento del personal para el desarrollo organizacional

No todas las organizaciones y empresas buscan el mismo nivel de compromiso e involucramiento de su personal en su esfuerzo por alcanzar los objetivos organizacionales y tampoco hacen uso de los mismos recursos como estímulos hacia el compromiso de sus miembros organizacionales.
Amitai Etzioni (“A comparative analysis of complex organizations. New York: Free Press – 1961) desarrolló un marco conceptual orientado a investigar cuales eran las semejanzas que se manifestaban en términos de compromiso e involucramiento en algunas organizaciones y como éstas se diferenciaban en otras organizaciones.

Por ejemplo se sabe que las empresas y organizaciones del “lejano Este” – orientales tienden a querer desarrollar mecanismos donde existe una máxima superposición entre los objetivos individuales con los objetivos de la empresa.

En cambio en el mundo corporativo, especialmente a nivel global dentro de occidente, no se busca necesariamente una total superposición entre los objetivos de los participantes organizacionales con los intereses y objetivos de sus empresas.

Con que exista “cierto” nivel de superposición, parece ser suficiente para las empresas occidentales.

El trabajo de Amitai Etzioni tuvo una cobertura muy amplia en materia organizacional puesto que incluyó a las empresas privadas, gubernamentales, instituciones religiosas, sindicatos, entre otros. Una de las preguntas más significativa que se formula Etzioni tiene que ver con “que es lo que hacen las organizaciones eficientes”.

Para Etzioni no parece “razonable” que todas las personas vayan a cumplir dentro de las empresas, instituciones y organizaciones, con las instrucciones que le son emanadas de sus superiores. Mas aún, existe una cierta cultura de retribución donde las personas en distintos arreglos organizacionales, parecen responder a distintas variables. Amitai Etzioni sugiere que uno puede conseguir cumplimiento de parte del personal por la fuerza y parece que algunas organizaciones lo logran de distintas maneras a partir de lo que se conoce como “estructura”.

El principio de división del trabajo y el desarrollo de normas y procedimientos se encuadra dentro de este enfoque de estructura.

Otra manera de lograr cumplimiento y compromiso de parte de los participantes organizacionales puede alcanzarse como resultado de tener en cuenta los aspectos motivacionales.

Para el desarrollo de su marco conceptual Amitai Etzioni tiene en cuenta dos variables principales, siendo el “poder” una de ellas, existiendo tres manifestaciones típicas de poder que se vinculan con la forma organizacional, la cual se caracteriza por utilizar distintos medios en la búsqueda con conseguir “cumplimiento” de parte de las personas en las organizaciones.

El primer tipo de poder es el coercitivo que, como su nombre lo indica, se ejerce a través de mecanismos basadas en la fuerza física. Según Amitai Etzioni en algunos casos este tipo de poder puede llegar a incluir una promesa de muerte o directamente el castigo físico por no-cumplimiento. La manera en que se administran estos castigos es variada en su grado, como también en lo que respecta a su naturaleza y aplicación. En esta categoría Etzioni incluye a las instituciones carcelarias, los campos de concentración, las fuerzas revolucionarias que secuestran a personas, y los hospitales mentales de tipo custodial.

Estas distintas organizaciones (cárceles, campos de concentración, etc.) se caracterizan por el hecho de que el proceso por el cual las personas ingresan no está sujeto a “la libertad del propio participante”. Las personas no eligen entrar a estas organizaciones pero se ven forzadas a participar en ellas. Y las consecuencias son obviamente disfuncionales pues el comportamiento que se puede esperar de ellos es de tipo alienante. Eric Gaynor Butterfield (World Congreso of the O. D. Institute, Colima México – 1997) sugiere que la concepción de Etzioni sea tenida en cuenta por los líderes organizacionales de instituciones educativas; frecuentemente las personas que ingresan a ellas “perciben que se han visto inducidos a ingresar” muchas veces en contra de ellos mismos. Los altos directivos y ejecutivos de empresa también pueden beneficiarse de esta concepción de Etzioni pues es frecuente que desarrollen “programas de fidelización” que se orientan a tener Clientes cautivos. Dichos programas lo obligan al Cliente a recibir y pagar por un servicio que muchas veces ni siquiera están interesados en tener como es el caso de algunos servicios que ofrecen los Bancos (cobro de chequera, gastos de mantenimiento de cuenta). Si tomaran en cuenta las ideas de Etzioni y las bajaran a la práctica diaria los directivos de organizaciones educativas y de empresas se darían cuenta de que muchas “reacciones de sus Clientes” son generadas por estímulos incorrectos que ellos mismos inician.

Otro tipo de poder es el normativo que se manifiesta a través del manejo de símbolos. El reconocimiento, respecto, valores, conocimiento, concepciones, afectos son ejemplos de símbolos y ellos están fuertemente presentes en las organizaciones. Etzioni hace mención a otros autores que han privilegiado este tipo de poder enfatizando por ejemplo al poder de persuasión.

Encontramos el uso del poder normativo en muchas organizaciones como es el caso de universidades, sindicatos, ONG´s, universidades, organizaciones políticas y religiosas, sindicatos, entre otros. El proceso de ingreso de los participantes se encuentra exactamente en el polo opuesto del tipo de poder coactivo que hemos visto anteriormente. Aquí se desarrolla un proceso de selección muy minucioso y detallado que usualmente lleva mucho tiempo.

El tercer tipo de poder es el remunerativo al que también le da el nombre de utilitarista. Este tipo de poder se vincula con el manejo de distintos recursos como es el caso de honorarios, sueldos, salarios y otros incentivos financieros. Este tipo de poder lo encontramos comúnmente dentro del mundo corporativo y las empresas privadas.

Este autor nos alerta que las distintas organizaciones en sus variadas manifestaciones, no hacen uso de un único tipo de poder. Existe un tipo de poder prevaleciente pero también existe la presencia de los otros poderes.

El lector interesado puede acudir a Victor Thompson (“Modern Organizations”) quien también tiene una visión particular sobre esta situación, en especial cuando hace referencia al conflicto que resulta de la orientación que tiene la organización hacia privilegiar la “administración” versus “la calidad profesional”.

Acaso ¿Quién no ha estado expuesto en una Universidad a la diversidad de perspectiva del administrador versus la de los profesores e investigadores? Y, en relación a los hospitales ¿quién no ha tenido dificultades en entender porqué los Directores del hospital tienen una visión que no siempre coincide con la de sus propios médicos que tienen contacto directo con el Cliente? Por lo tanto podemos concluir en que en las distintas empresas y organizaciones encontramos principalmente un tipo de poder en particular, pero que a veces se encuentra acompañado por otro tipo de poder – que lo llamamos secundario – en la búsqueda de alcanzar un mayor grado de compromiso e involucramiento.

Como hemos mencionado más arriba existe una segunda variable importante. Este segundo componente – que se diferencia del primero que es el poder – es denominado por Etzioni como involucramiento.

Y aquí también se dan tres tipos principales de involucramiento.

1. En primer término tenemos el tipo de Involucramiento que es alienante donde existe una oposición entre los intereses, preferencias, y vocaciones del individuo vis a vis la organización.

Resulta bastante natural que tanto los comportamientos de los internos en las cárceles como el de los prisioneros de guerra adopten este tipo de perfil.

2. Se da también un segundo tipo de Involucramiento al que Etzioni da el nombre de moral que se caracteriza por el hecho que los miembros organizacionales llegan a manifestar cierto grado de identificación con la organización.

Los miembros organizacionales bajo esta situación particular muestran un alto grado de compromiso con los objetivos de la organización como es el caso de los sacerdotes, rabinos y pastores. Algo similar sucede con aquellos que han abrazado partidos políticos, sindicatos, entidades de bien público, organizaciones voluntarias de bomberos, y organizaciones de caridad.

3. Finalmente el tercer tipo de Involucramiento que concibe Etzioni es aquél al que le ha dado el nombre de remunerativo. Aquí el participante organizacional adopta un tipo de compromiso que se caracteriza por ser especulativo o calculador.

Se alcanzan niveles “medio” de compromiso bajo esta figura que se distingue de situaciones alienantes (bajo compromiso) o moral (de alto compromiso).

Las empresas privadas y corporaciones multinacionales se orientan a conseguir compromisos de partes de sus miembros como resultado del involucramiento de tipo calculador.

El trabajo de Amitai Etzioni se completa al sugerir que las organizaciones “eficientes y efectivas” son aquellas donde se presenta una combinación apropiada entre el tipo de poder prevaleciente y el tipo de involucramiento, lo que se presenta dentro de una forma organizacional.

Cuando se da este tipo de situación Etzioni las denomina como tipo “congruentes” que está presente cuando una tipología organizativa en especial hace una específica elección del tipo de poder “principal” y el tipo de involucramiento “principal”.

El autor sugiere que hacer uso del poder coercitivo – el que se ha de ver acompañado por un involucramiento alienante – es consistente o mejor dicho “congruente” en sus propias palabras, con la forma de operar y funcionar que se ha de observar en los campos de concentración y las cárceles.

Por otro lado, cuando los sindicatos, los partidos políticos y algunas asociaciones profesionales hacen uso del poder normativo y del involucramiento moral, están eligiendo su forma más efectiva por ser también congruente. Las empresas privadas y el mundo corporativo deben orientarse a hacer uso de un involucramiento calculador y un uso de poder remunerativo, pues son ellas congruentes para ellas. Y aquí es donde Etzioni cierra el círculo de su teoría organizacional más efectiva y eficiente.

Eric Gaynor Butterfield (Jornada de Inteligencia Emocional en la Educación, Septiembre del 2000, Buenos Aires) destaca que los líderes organizacionales y empresariales seguramente se han de beneficiar como resultado de tener en cuenta la concepción de Etzioni. Destaca Gaynor B. – que “los líderes empresariales y organizacionales no deben sorprenderse si sus Clientes responden de manera alienante ante la oferta que hacen de productos y servicios” cuando los mismos directivos desarrollan mecanismos donde los ingresantes no cuentan con la opción de no-ingresar o de no-participar.

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En The O. D. Institute International seguimos trabajando en este proyecto que se orienta a Mostrar dentro de los distintos países de habla castellana, que las ciencias del comportamiento pueden hacer la “diferencia” que necesitan los líderes organizacionales y empresariales para obtener ventajas competitivas.

Aceptamos sugerencias de los lectores para perfeccionar la Bibliografía de Desarrollo Organizacional, distinguiendo los distintos temas prevalecientes como en esta situación, al destacar contribuciones y aportes en materia de “Compromiso e Involucramiento” en las empresas / organizaciones.

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Gaynor Butterfield Eric. (2006, marzo 18). Compromiso e involucramiento del personal para el desarrollo organizacional. Recuperado de https://www.gestiopolis.com/compromiso-involucramiento-del-personal-desarrollo-organizacional/
Gaynor Butterfield, Eric. "Compromiso e involucramiento del personal para el desarrollo organizacional". GestioPolis. 18 marzo 2006. Web. <https://www.gestiopolis.com/compromiso-involucramiento-del-personal-desarrollo-organizacional/>.
Gaynor Butterfield, Eric. "Compromiso e involucramiento del personal para el desarrollo organizacional". GestioPolis. marzo 18, 2006. Consultado el 17 de Noviembre de 2018. https://www.gestiopolis.com/compromiso-involucramiento-del-personal-desarrollo-organizacional/.
Gaynor Butterfield, Eric. Compromiso e involucramiento del personal para el desarrollo organizacional [en línea]. <https://www.gestiopolis.com/compromiso-involucramiento-del-personal-desarrollo-organizacional/> [Citado el 17 de Noviembre de 2018].
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