Women not only got equal legal rights with men, on average they also have equal or higher educational qualifications and leadership skills.
In the executive suites, however, they are underrepresented in comparison to their male counterparts.
¿What keeps them from climbing?
While the discrimination of women in the education system has disappeared (more woman then men today achieve a university degree worldwide), it lives on in the world of work. In the industrial society, a special form of gender-specific division of labor had emerged – in the workplace, in public life and in privacy.
Between women and men there were typical differences in social living conditions and social role requirements, which were also reflected in gender specific socialization processes on the personality, attitudes, motivations and behaviors.
Definition of Discrimination
Discrimination in a social sense occurs when one person or group of persons is characterized by another by social or group-specific negatively assessed characteristics. People are treated differently. One consequence of social discrimination is often its economic discrimination. (Cvitkovich, 2012, p. 8) Economic discrimination occurs when the consideration is not solely performance-based, but the non-changeable personal characteristics that are irrelevant to that achievement. The characteristics include, for example, gender. (Kreimer, 2009, p. 9)
3. Types of discrimination
Labour market discrimination
There is talk of labour market discrimination when two equally well-qualified individuals are treated differently in the labour market because of features that are immaterial to productivity. (Kapphan, 1994, p. 40 f.) • 1 Labor market discrimination is subdivided into recruitment, employment, promotion and pay discrimination (Kapphan, 1994, p. 40 f.).
If women have poorer recruitment opportunities or are systematically referred to lowervalue jobs, this is called employment discrimination (Kapphan, 1994, p. 40 f.)
Employment discrimination occurs when women are treated worse than other groups despite having the same skills as their own. (Kapphan, 1994, p. 40 f.)
Ascent discrimination refers to the poorer access of women to further education opportunities and the lower opportunities for advancement despite equal or equivalent qualifications. (Kapphan, 1994, p. 40 f.)
Wage discrimination against women exists when women are paid worse than equally qualified men solely because of their gender. In wage discrimination, a distinction is made between direct and indirect discrimination. (Kapphan, 1994, p. 40 f.)
Germany and Mexico in Comparison
Women are not only equal legal rights with men, on average they also have equal or higher educational qualifications, qualifications and leadership skills. In the executive suites, however, they are underrepresented in comparison to their male counterparts.
Facts about Germany and Mexico
Analysis about Germany
Proportion of 24 – 35-year olds with a university degree:
In the average men are getting 21,00€/ hour and women 16,59€ /hour (difference is about 21%). (2018, statistisches Bundesamt)
Analysis about Mexico
Mexico scored 0.5 in the Gender pay gap, this means that on average, women income in Mexico was estimated to be 50% lower than men´s. (2018, Statista)
In 2018 women in Mexico were asked what where the main issues that women and girls were facing in Mexico: 48% Sexual harassment
22% gender stereotyping
14% Equal pay 14% Unpaid work
10% Access to education
There is no difference between women and men when it comes to university degrees, and the proportion of women and men who could work is equally high. However, according to the education and skills of women is not fully utilized. Only just under 70 percent of all women are currently in employment. Although this is a good ten percent more than in 2008, the employment rate is still eight percent lower than that of men. In addition, almost 37 percent of working women, including many mothers, work part-time.
We think that one possible solution to this problem could be to give women with children more social support in the form of e.g. to offer daycare.
Sources: https://www.destatis.de/DE/ZahlenFakten/ImFokus/VerdiensteArbeitskosten/ Verdienstunterschiede2018.html
VerdiensteArbeitskosten/VerdiensteVerdienstunterschiede/Tabellen/ Bruttomonatsverdienste.html https://wenr.wes.org/2016/08/education-in-mexicoKapphan, 1994, p. 40 f.