Metodología de la investigación tecnológica. Segunda Parte

Autor: Dr. Ing. César Jiménez Calderón

Tecnología e Internet


- Tecnología: resultado del saber que permite producir artefactos o procesos, modifica el medio, incluyendo las plantas y animales, para generar bienestar y satisfacer las necesidades humanas.

- Technology.- It is the sum up of the knowledge that allows people to produce artifacts or processes by modifying the environment to create welfare and satisfaction of human needs.

- Technology is neither good nor bad.
- Ethic judgment is not applicable to technology, but how it is used.
- Technology differs from Science and Art:

science art technology = to understand reality  = to enjoy reality mentally  = to transform reality


1. Problematic Situation
2. Research Problem
3. Research Object
4. Specific Research Field
5. Research Objective
6. Hypothesis
7. The State of the Art
8. Theory-Conceptual Model
9. Factual Model
10. The Paper Title
11. Tasks, Timing and Budget

1. Problematic Situation

- The necessary condition is the state of the research object (set of phenomena, fact and deficient or misunderstood process), depending on an adequate approximation and understanding about reality by the researcher.

Also depends on:

- Reflexive and analytical capacity of the researcher to assure better outcomes and quality.
- Referencing and scenarios.

2. Research Problem

- The problem is the abstraction, by using concepts, theories and scientific/tech laws of the field under study, about the deficiencies, facts or processes, evidences or probabilities, that limit or impede reaching a desirable and feasible state.
- It is formulated as a proposition, because it is difficult to make inferences as a question.
- It is the external performance of the object that makes the subject explain it.
- The major accuracy in the problem, the major possibility to have success in solving the problem.

3. Research Object

- It is the part of reality that is abstracted through a systemic gathering of the relationships among the elements of the problem.
- Its characterization is done by means of particular and specific concepts, and are deducted from the problem as it is being defined.
- During the process: the input comprises the -exogenous elements–the output comprises endogenous elements-.
- The interior of process –that is, the interacting mechanism among the intervening elements- couldn’t be observed.
- Unknown facts must exist beyond the observed facts. Science tries to discover such subjacent elements.

4. Specific Research Field

- The specific research field is a part of the object, where the researcher produces innovations or inventions.
- Here, the researcher only abstracts the properties and attributes of the object to be systematized, changed, or explained.
- This is the field under study, where the researcher presupposes to reach the desired objective.

5. Research Objective

- It is the purpose or shifted situation of problem once human intervention is concluded.
- It is formulated in infinitive, according to Bloom’s Taxonomy, for example.
- The objective leads the whole research work, and must be based on a theory, law, or principle to support the specific research field.
- It must be clear, coherent, and achievable.
- The research tasks, which are derived from the objective, come from Theory-Conceptual Model.

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Dr. Ing. César Jiménez Calderón

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