Technology Research Methodology

Concepts about Technology

  • Technology.- It is the sum up of the knowledge that allows people to produce artifacts or processes by modifying the environment to create welfare and satisfaction of human needs.
  • Technology is neither good nor bad.
  • Ethic judgment is not applicable to technology, but how it is used.
  • Technology differs from Science and Art: science = to understand reality art = to enjoy reality mentally technology = to transform reality

Relationship: Technology and Economics

Technological shift of product = Large Development of Economics

Technological shift of model/idea = Small Development of Economics


The Technology Research Project Protocol

  1. Problematic Situation
  2. Research Problem
  3. Research Object
  4. Specific Research Field
  5. Research Objective
  6. Hypothesis
  7. The State of the Art
  8. Theory-Conceptual Model
  9. Factual Model
  10. The Paper Title
  11. Tasks, Timing and Budget

1. Problematic Situation

Perception of deficiencies, limitations, and needs of the reality under study

The necessary condition is the state of the research object (set of phenomena, fact and deficient or misunderstood process), depending on an adequate approximation and understanding about reality by the researcher.

Also depends on:

  • Reflexive and analytical capacity of the researcher to assure better outcomes and quality.
  • Referencing and scenarios.

2. Research Problem

Abstraction from the problematic situation based on key words

  • The problem is the abstraction, by using concepts, theories and scientific/tech laws of the field under study, about the deficiencies, facts or processes, evidences or probabilities, that limit or impede reaching a desirable and feasible state.
  • It is formulated as a proposition, because it is difficult to make inferences as a question.
  • It is the external performance of the object that makes the subject explain it.
  • The major accuracy in the problem, the major possibility to have success in solving the problem.

3. Research Object

Process of abstraction from the Research Problem

  • It is the part of reality that is abstracted through a systemic gathering of the relationships among the elements of the problem.
  • Its characterization is done by means of particular and specific concepts, and are deducted from the problem as it is being defined.
  • During the process: the input comprises the -exogenous elements–the output comprises endogenous elements-.
  • The interior of process –that is, the interacting mechanism among the intervening elements- couldn’t be observed.
  • Unknown facts must exist beyond the observed facts. Science tries to discover such subjacent elements.

4. Specific Research Field

Sub process of Research Object

• The specific research field is a part of the object, where the researcher produces innovations or inventions.
• Here, the researcher only abstracts the properties and attributes of the object to be systematized, changed, or explained.
• This is the field under study, where the researcher presupposes to reach the desired objective.

5. Research Objective

Verb (infinitive) + complement … , based on … (law, principle, or standard)

  • It is the purpose or shifted situation of problem once human intervention is concluded.
  • It is formulated in infinitive, according to Bloom’s Taxonomy, for example.
  • The objective leads the whole research work, and must be based on a theory, law, or principle to support the specific research field.
  • It must be clear, coherent, and achievable.
  • The research tasks, which are derived from the objective, come from Theory-Conceptual Model.

6. Hypothesis

IF (objective), THEN (probable solution of problem)

  • The hypothesis is expressed as a conditional statement: IF (sufficient condition), THEN (necessary condition
  • This prediction is formulated to be accepted or discarded.
  • It must contain new aspects, new relations, or new variables, which lead to a theoretical contribution for technology.

7. The State of the Art

Referencing and data mining about the Research Object

  • Analysis and systematization of current theories about the research object: concepts, categories, or laws that characterize the object.
  • Here, social and natural complex fields are described, where the researcher performs its critical and analytical practice, communicative and argumentative capacities.
  • Referencing is based on Chicago style, for example, to have scientific background.
  • The deepness of the State of the Art depends on the analysis of a large number of qualified sources.

8. Theory-Conceptual Model

Fusion of critical thinking, logic reasoning, creative thinking + State of the Art = ideal solution

  • Ideal representation where essential elements, information about them and their relationships are abstracted, and systematized.
  • Critical thinking, logic reasoning, creative thinking, and communicative and research abilities, based on the referencing of the State of the Art, are used for solving the problem conceptually.
  • Connection between the objective and methods are established to solve the problem.
  • The Model not only constitutes a contribution and synthesis of the researcher, but also leads to the patent.

9. Factual Model

Verify: (a) experimental o semi-experimental by means of statistics, (b) logic demonstration, (c) workshop/lab

  • Wisdom must be measurable.
  • Statistic contributes efficiently to turn a theory-conceptual situation into factual: variables appear.
  • Some statistical solved problem could coincide with the variables under study, thus facilitating the viability to verify the Factual Model.
  • Not only adequate experimental o semi-experimental tests, but also logic demonstrations are recommended to validate the Factual Model.
  • Workshop or laboratory trial and error essays are very useful for validating the Factual Model.
    Contribution Validity = Theory Conceptual Model + Factual Model

10. The Paper Title

The Title appears from establishing relationships or dependency between the interacting variables of the Factual Model:
If there is relationship: Monographic Research
XX1 : Relationship between X and X1 or study of X
XX1, X2 : Improvement of X
If there is dependency: Empirical Research
XY : Effect of X on Y
XY : Study of interaction between X; Y

11. Research Tasks, Timing and Budget

Tasks Time in hours Budget
Problematic Situation, Research
Problem, Research Object,
Specific Research Field, Research
Objective, Hypothesis 6
State of the Art 10
Theory-Conceptual Model 6
Factual Model 2
The Paper Title 1
Assessment Rubrics for Technology Research Project
Indicator Descriptor Deficient Regular Acceptable Outstanding
Title Name of Project including the variables under study Out of topic Vague idea Understanding idea Concrete idea with variables
Problematic situation Deficiencies/needs of observable reality …
Problem Abstraction from problematic situation
Object Abstraction from problem on technology field
Specific field Subsystem of Object
Objective Shifted Object, based on a theory o law
Hypothesis Relationship objective and solution of problem
State of the Art Referencing about Object
Theo & Concept
Model Ideal solution of problem, based on State of the Art
Factual Model Verification of Theo &
Concept Model
Methods of Technology Research
A current method of technology for producing artifacts and processes is the use of tools and devices.
Media: energy and information.
Design is a compulsory requirement for the production of artifacts and processes as formal knowledge from diverse fields.
Trial and error method is frequent.
Other methods and instruments: interactions among levels and analysis units, interviews, sampling, surveys, data analysis tools, legal regulations.

Validity of Technology Research

  1. Construct: logic arrangement
  2. Convergent: agreement of researcher, methodology advisor, and scientific advisor
  3. Discriminant: according to one field of technology
  4. Internal: causal relationship between treatment and outcome
  5. External: transcendental study to be used for referencing

Critical Thinking Abilities

Analysis: identify the relationship between BE and MUST BE conditions
Self-regulation: self-conscious, self-assessment and selfcorrection of actions and activities.
Explanation: argument and support of own reasoning.
Evaluation: judge the trust on sources.
Interpretation: understand and express the meaning or importance of the events.
Inference: identify the sufficient and necessary conditions to hypothesize.
Standards and Rigor in Technology Research
Chicago Style

APA Style


The Technology Research Report Protocol

  1. Summary
  2. Introduction
  3. Part 1: State of the Art
  4. Part 2: Theory-Conceptual Model
  5. Part 3: Analysis of Factual Model
  6. Part 4: The Artifact or Process
  7. Conclusion
  8. Future Works
  9. References
  10. Annex

1. The Summary

  • It contains sequentially main ideas about each part of the report.
  • The averaged number of words is 120.
  • 5 to 7 key words must be considered below the summary.

2. The Introduction

It includes some comments about the technology research current challenges, the problematic situation, the research problem, the research object, the specific research field, the research objective, the hypothesis, description of research tasks and the introductions of each part of the report.

3. The State of the Art

It includes an enlarged and deeper State of the Art of the Project.

4. Theory Conceptual Model

It includes an enlarged and deep Theory Conceptual Model of the Project.

5. Analysis of Factual Model

  • It includes an enlarged and deep Factual Model of the Project
  • The results of used Technology Research Methods are analyzed.

6. The Artifact or Process

It includes the concretion of the designed artifact or process to be patented.

7. Conclusion

It is a synthesis of the shifted object.
It compiles the conclusions of each part of the Project.

8. Future Works

It includes a list of the researcher’s proposal for related subsequent works.

9. Referencing

It comprises a logic arrangement of references, according to a style for publication, like Chicago, for example.

10. Annex

Additional optional information for the reader to verify data and information about the research work.
Assessment Rubrics for Technology Research Report
Indicator Descriptor Deficient Regular Acceptable Outstanding
Summary Sequentially main ideas about the report
Introduction Definition of research and arranged topics
State of the Art Referencing about Object
Theo & Concept
Model Ideal solution of problem, based on State of the Art
Factual Model Verification of Theo &
Concept Model
Artifact/Proc. Concrete description of patent
Conclusions Synthesis of shifted Object in each part of report
Future Works Proposal for related subsequent works
Referencing Norm and defined style for publication
Annex Additional Information

Cita esta página

Jiménez Calderón César Eduardo. (2008, marzo 10). Technology Research Methodology. Recuperado de
Jiménez Calderón César Eduardo. "Technology Research Methodology". gestiopolis. 10 marzo 2008. Web. <>.
Jiménez Calderón César Eduardo. "Technology Research Methodology". gestiopolis. marzo 10, 2008. Consultado el .
Jiménez Calderón César Eduardo. Technology Research Methodology [en línea]. <> [Citado el ].

Escrito por:

Imagen del encabezado cortesía de clearlyambiguous en Flickr