Technology Research Methodology

 






Dr. Cesar Jimenez
cjimenez@usat.edu.pe

Technology.- It is the sum up of the knowledge that allows people
to produce artifacts or processes by modifying the environment to
create welfare and satisfaction of human needs.
Technology is neither good nor bad.
Ethic judgment is not applicable to technology, but how it is used.
Technology differs from Science and Art:
science = to understand reality
art = to enjoy reality mentally
technology = to transform reality


Technological shift of product Large Development of
Economics
=1
Technological shift of model/idea Small Development of
Economics
=1

1. Problematic Situation
2. Research Problem
3. Research Object
4. Specific Research Field
5. Research Objective
6. Hypothesis
7. The State of the Art
8. Theory-Conceptual Model
9. Factual Model
10.The Paper Title
11.Tasks, Timing and Budget
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. 
It is the part of reality that is abstracted through a systemic
gathering of the relationships among the elements of the
problem.
Its characterization is done by means of particular and
specific concepts, and are deducted from the problem as it is
being defined.
During the process: the input comprises the -exogenous
elements–the output comprises endogenous elements-.
The interior of process that is, the interacting mechanism
among the intervening elements- couldn’t be observed.
Unknown facts must exist beyond the observed facts.
Science tries to discover such subjacent elements.
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The specific research field is a part of the object, where
the researcher produces innovations or inventions.
Here, the researcher only abstracts the properties and
attributes of the object to be systematized, changed, or
explained.
This is the field under study, where the researcher
presupposes to reach the desired objective.
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30(
It is the purpose or shifted situation of problem once
human intervention is concluded.
It is formulated in infinitive, according to Bloom’s
Taxonomy, for example.
The objective leads the whole research work, and must be
based on a theory, law, or principle to support the specific
research field.
It must be clear, coherent, and achievable.
The research tasks, which are derived from the objective,
come from Theory-Conceptual Model.
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!!,
The hypothesis is expressed as a conditional statement:
IF (sufficient condition), THEN (necessary condition)
This prediction is formulated to be accepted or discarded.
It must contain new aspects, new relations, or new
variables, which lead to a theoretical contribution for
technology.
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Analysis and systematization of current theories about the
research object: concepts, categories, or laws that
characterize the object.
Here, social and natural complex fields are described, where
the researcher performs its critical and analytical practice,
communicative and argumentative capacities.
Referencing is based on Chicago style, for example, to have
scientific background.
The deepness of the State of the Art depends on the analysis
of a large number of qualified sources.
Ideal representation where essential elements, information
about them and their relationships are abstracted, and
systematized.
Critical thinking, logic reasoning, creative thinking, and
communicative and research abilities, based on the referencing
of the State of the Art, are used for solving the problem
conceptually.
Connection between the objective and methods are established
to solve the problem.
The Model not only constitutes a contribution and synthesis of
the researcher, but also leads to the patent.
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Wisdom must be measurable.
Statistic contributes efficiently to turn a theory-conceptual
situation into factual: variables appear.
Some statistical solved problem could coincide with the
variables under study, thus facilitating the viability to verify
the Factual Model.
Not only adequate experimental o semi-experimental tests,
but also logic demonstrations are recommended to validate
the Factual Model.
Workshop or laboratory trial and error essays are very useful
for validating the Factual Model.
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=
The Title appears from establishing relationships or dependency
between the interacting variables of the Factual Model:
If there is relationship: Monographic Research
X X1: Relationship between X and X1 or study of X
X X1, X2: Improvement of X
If there is dependency: Empirical Research
X Y : Effect of X on Y
X Y : Study of interaction between X; Y
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>
Tasks Time in hours Budget
Problematic Situation, Research
Problem, Research Object,
Specific Research Field, Research
Objective, Hypothesis
State of the Art
6
Theory-Conceptual Model
Factual Model
The Paper Title
10
6
2
1
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
A current method of technology for producing artifacts and
processes is the use of tools and devices.
Media: energy and information.
Design is a compulsory requirement for the production of
artifacts and processes as formal knowledge from diverse
fields.
Trial and error method is frequent.
Other methods and instruments: interactions among levels
and analysis units, interviews, sampling, surveys, data
analysis tools, legal regulations.
:

1. Construct: logic arrangement
2. Convergent: agreement of researcher, methodology
advisor, and scientific advisor
3. Discriminant: according to one field of technology
4. Internal: causal relationship between treatment and
outcome
5. External: transcendental study to be used for referencing
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%
Analysis: identify the relationship between BE and MUST BE
conditions
Self-regulation: self-conscious, self-assessment and self-
correction of actions and activities.
Explanation: argument and support of own reasoning.
Evaluation: judge the trust on sources.
Interpretation: understand and express the meaning or importance
of the events.
Inference: identify the sufficient and necessary conditions to
hypothesize.


Chicago Style
APA Style
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

1. Summary
2. Introduction
3. Part 1: State of the Art
4. Part 2: Theory-Conceptual Model
5. Part 3: Analysis of Factual Model
6. Part 4: The Artifact or Process
7. Conclusion
8. Future Works
9. References
10.Annex


It contains sequentially main ideas about each part of the
report.
The averaged number of words is 120.
5 to 7 key words must be considered below the summary.
.+
It includes some comments about the technology
research current challenges, the problematic situation,
the research problem, the research object, the specific
research field, the research objective, the hypothesis,
description of research tasks and the introductions of
each part of the report.
/%
It includes an enlarged and deeper State of the Art of
the Project.
18
It includes an enlarged and deep Theory Conceptual
Model of the Project.
3%2
8
It includes an enlarged and deep Factual Model of the
Project
The results of used Technology Research Methods
are analyzed.
4%

It includes the concretion of the designed artifact or
process to be patented.
6
It is a synthesis of the shifted object.
It compiles the conclusions of each part of the Project.
72D-
It includes a list of the researchers proposal
for related subsequent works.
9
It comprises a logic arrangement of references,
according to a style for publication, like Chicago,
for example.
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Additional optional information for the reader to
verify data and information about the research work.
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%
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
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
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Technology means wellness or badness:
depends on human being’s prudence.
?EF

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Jiménez Calderón César Eduardo. (2008, marzo 10). Technology Research Methodology. Recuperado de http://www.gestiopolis.com/technology-research-methodology/
Jiménez Calderón, César Eduardo. "Technology Research Methodology". GestioPolis. 10 marzo 2008. Web. <http://www.gestiopolis.com/technology-research-methodology/>.
Jiménez Calderón, César Eduardo. "Technology Research Methodology". GestioPolis. marzo 10, 2008. Consultado el 4 de Julio de 2015. http://www.gestiopolis.com/technology-research-methodology/.
Jiménez Calderón, César Eduardo. Technology Research Methodology [en línea]. <http://www.gestiopolis.com/technology-research-methodology/> [Citado el 4 de Julio de 2015].
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