Research pathways in teaching english to speakers of other languages

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RESEARCH PATHWAYS IN TEACHING ENGLISH
TO SPEAKERS OF OTHER LANGUAGES
Dr. César Eduardo Jiménez Calderón
Profesor de la Universidad Católica Santo Toribio de Mogrovejo
cesarejimenez@gmail.com or cjimenez@usat.edu.pe
Peru, November 2010
TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY IN
EDUCATION
1. Reality
2. Problematic situation
3. Problem
4. Object under study and specific field
5. Objective of research
6. Product or Concretion of research
7. Inferential assumption
8. Tasks of research
9. Methods and Techniques for demonstrations
10. Purpose and Rationale of research
11. The State of the Art
12. Conceptual Framework
13. Factual Framework
14. References
Connected issues
1. Reality
Concept:
Reality is everything that exists consciously (culture) or being conscious through
your will (learning) or might observe spontaneously (empirical).
Examples:
Any Centre belongs to the reality.
Our ideas, concepts and cosmovision belong to the reality.
Also, animate and inanimate things belong to the reality.
Other upcoming knowledge and thoughts if they exist.
Example: Subtitles of any Language Centre scenario
-Inadequately teaching strategies when acquiring a new language
-Students of a foreign language use the new language inappropriately
-Diversity interests of students
-Misunderstanding of own skills
-Others
KEY WORDS: teaching strategies, foreign language use, acquiring skills,
students’ interests
2. Problematic situation
Concept:
It is the necessary current condition of reality that surrounds the object under study
(lackness, deficiencies, wrongly working processes, routinely habitual events).
The researcher gathers data or information quantitatively or qualitatively by means of a
Matrix for Diagnosing the Reality (see 2.1).
KEY WORDS: words that frequently appear and emerge when describing the
problematic situation. They are useful for data bases.
Teaching
strategies Scenario Accessibility
Acquisition
process
Own
practice
Own
motivation
Does teaching
strategies increase
acquisition
process?
EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE OBJECT UNDER STUDY
INTERNAL
ENVIRONMENT
Language
Centre ABC
Own skills
2.1. Problematic situation: MATRIX FOR DIAGNOSING REALITY
Does the current
scenario increase
acquisition
process?
3. Problem
Example:
Deficiency: teaching strategies when acquiring a new language
Limitation: own learning techniques to acquire a new language in ABC
Language Centre
Statement of Problem:
There is a deficiency on teaching strategies when acquiring a new language that limits
the students’ own learning techniques in order to acquire a new language in ABC
Language Centre.
Concept:
It is the abstraction of problematic situation, by contrasting concepts, theories, or
experience that limit or impede reaching a desirable, feasible, sustainable state.
The parts of problem:
Deficiency: shortness; permanent need, lack, or weak processes
Limitation: something that restraint; the state of being limited (skills or processes) now
Object: EFL Teacher and student Autonomy
Specific field: Teaching strategies for learning
4. Object under study and Specific Field
Concept:
Object is the abstraction from the research problem through a systemic connection
among the exogenous and endogenous elements.
If the interacting mechanism among the intervening elements:
a) cannot be observed = it is a scientific research (scientific cognition)
b) can be observed = it is a technological research (scientific practice)
Example:
See 4.1. for a proposed division of Didactics
Principles of Second and
Foreign Language
Acquisition
Linguistics in Teaching
English to Speakers of Other
Languages (TESOL)
Sociolinguistics and
Communication in the
Classroom
EFL Teacher and student
Autonomy
Material Development and
Methods for TESOL
Area Sub-Areas Topics: Specific Fields
Didactics
- Task-Based Language Learning
- Language as a Complex Adaptive System
- Methodologies that favor children’s acquisition of English
- Describe and analyze school contexts
- Classroom practices and curriculum design
- Teaching digital natives
- The impact of School Resources
- Assessment Results to Improve Teaching and Learning
- Improving Indicators of the Quality of English Acquisition
- Trends in English Resources for Strategic Achievement Gap of
the Net Generation
- Net Help for Solving Teaching-Learning English
- Future Skill Demands in English as a second or foreign language
- Phonological Issues in Language Learning
- Reading and Language Learning
- Grammatical Development in Language Learning
- Attitudes, Orientations and Motivations in Language Learning
4.1. Proposed division of Didactics
- Teaching strategies for learning
5. Objective of Research
Concept:
It is the desired or shifted situation (the new state) once human intervention is
concluded.
Parts:
transitive verb + direct/indirect object + circumstances (place) +
theory support (based on) + sustainable criterion
Example:
Design a teaching strategies for learning plan for acquiring a new language in ABC
Language Centre based on multiple intelligences theory with a semester review of
indicators.
6. Product or Concretion of Research
Concept:
It is the viewed impact or result after human intervention on reality. It emerges from the
direct object of Objective statement.
Part:
direct/indirect object
Example:
The teaching strategies for learning plan
7. Inferential assumption
Concept:
It is the retrospective or prospective relationship of a sufficient and necessary
condition as logical cause-effect propositions. (See 7.1)
IF (sufficient condition / axiom), THEN (necessary condition / theorem)
Demonstrations are held on sufficient condition, the necessary condition will be
the new state.
Example:
If a teaching strategies for learning plan for acquiring a new language in ABC Language
Centre based on multiple intelligences theory with a semester review is put into practice,
then students will be aware of their foreign language learning skills.
SUFFICIENT
CONDITION
NECESSARY
CONDITION
NECESSARY
CONDITION
SUFFICIENT
CONDITION
CAUSE EFFECT
CAUSE EFFECT
IF THEN
THEN
IF
- Retrospective study - Prospective study
PAST ACTIVITIES PRESENT ACTIONS-
ACTIVITIES
FUTURE ACTIONS
- Based on proceedings - Based on processes
Axioms Theorems
Axioms Theorems
7.1. Inferential Assumption Scheme
RETROSPECTIVE CASE STUDY:
To explain teaching strategies for
learning during 2005-2010
PROSPECTIVE CASE STUDY:
To design an innovative methodology of teaching
strategies for learning during 2010-2011
Innovation and creation are present
8. Tasks of research
Concept:
Identifying the object and specific field
Elaborating the proposal (plan, model, methodology, approach, strategy,
process) based on a theory
Validating the proposal
Example:
Identifying the object and specific field (previously done)
Elaborating the proposal (plan, model, methodology, approach, strategy,
process) based on multiple intelligences theory theory
Validating the proposal by experts
9. Methods and Techniques for demonstrating the assumption
Concept:
A means or manner of procedure, especially a regular and systematic way of
accomplishing something. Orderly arrangement of parts or steps to accomplish
an end (The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 2009).
Action research
Accounts
Triangulation
Role-playing
The interview
Personal constructs
Multidimensional measurement
The ethics of educational and
social research
Historical research
Developmental research
Surveys
Case studies
Correlational research
Ex post facto research
Experiments, quasi-experiments, and
single-case research
Example: (Cohen, 2002)
10. Purpose and Rationale of research
Concept:
The impact in terms of the outcomes of learning in complex situations.
Argue the reasons or importance of substantial gaps in our knowledge base on
a number of issues
The way the study enriches the knowledge of the specific field.
Example:
A teaching strategies for learning plan will help the way students acquire a new
language by means of a process called meta-cognition of skills. Here, students find their
own skills in order to sustain their lifelong learning. It is important to make sense of the
relationships between cognition-skills for building models and analyses that will be
applicable in a range of contexts. In a way, …
11. The State of the Art
Concept:
Systematic analysis of data and information for featuring the object under study
by using key words and updated databases (see 11.1).
Analyze the way other authors treated the axioms or theorems you are
discussing to characterize the object under study.
Social and natural complex fields are described, where the researcher performs
its critical and analytical practice, communicative and argumentative skills.
EXAMPLE:
“Oxford (1990) believes that language learning strategies are those activities used to
make language learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more effective and more
transferable to new situations” (cited by Guo-chen, 2008). For this reason…
Object of research: EFL Teacher and student Autonomy (Field of study)
Specific field - topic: teaching strategies for learning in ABC Language Centre (Minor area)
Concept-theory-approach from
diverse sources related
THEORY REAL SCENARIO
Deduct the way they are applied
on the real scenario through
deductive inferences
EXAMPLE:
Oxford (1990) believes that language learning strategies are
those activities used to make language learning easier, faster,
more enjoyable, more effective and more transferable to new
situations (cited by Guo-chen, JIN. "On the English learning
strategies in college." US-China Foreign Language 6.7 (2008):
47-50. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 31 Oct. 2010).
1. The language learning strategies in
ABC Language Centre.
2. The way people at ABC Language
Centre make language learning easier,
faster, more enjoyable, more effective and
more transferable to new situations.
Facts to be found and explained
thoroughly in their intersections
Key points
11.1. The State of the Art (Tool)
12. Conceptual framework
Concept:
It is the ideal solution. Conceptual framework: fusion of critical thinking, logic
reasoning, creative thinking + State of the Art.
A connection between the objective and methods is established to solve the
problem.
The outcome is innovative or creative.
EXAMPLE:
Students can command their learning experiences qualitatively thus making “language
learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more effective and more transferable to new
situations” (Guo-chen, 2008) if they direct the nature and quality of learning provision
as much as on the number of hours or years spent in schooling. To move beyond
these skills requires consideration of educational contexts (the level and type of
education); educational content (the curriculum and pedagogy); and the ethos of
educational settings.
13. Factual framework
Concepts:
Justify and explain the methodology to have the problem solved.
Statistics may efficiently contribute to turn a theory-conceptual situation into factual:
variables appear.
Some statistical solved problem could coincide with the variables under study, thus
facilitating the viability to verify the facts.
Not only adequate experimental or semi-experimental tests, but also logic
demonstrations are recommended to validate the Conceptual Framework.
EXAMPLE:
A review of the public objectives of education will be done. The criteria and measures
that are used to monitor progress are:
• Strengthening the knowledge base: analyzing social outcomes, policy indicators and
other measures, and the application of cost-benefit analyses.
• Enriching data analysis: construction and application of longitudinal data,
experimental designs, biographical analysis and in-depth studies of learning
processes are high priorities.
• Exploring the implications for pedagogy, assessment and qualification systems: how
learning achievements of different kinds are recognized and valued.
14. References
Concept:
A person or thing to which a linguistic expression refers (The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, 2009)
Referencing is necessary to avoid plagiarism, to verify quotations, and to enable
readers to follow-up and read more fully the cited authors arguments (APA
Referencing, 2010)
EXAMPLE:
Guo-chen, J. (2008). On the English learning strategies in college. US-China Foreign
Language, 6(7), 47-50. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
October 31, 2010.
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright
©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton
Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Retrieved from
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/referent
APA Referencing (2010). Australia: Curtin University Library. Retrieved from
http://library.curtin.edu.au/local/docs/referencing/376385.0.APA%206th
%20referencing%20guide,%20Sem%201%202010.pdf
Cohen, L (2002). Métodos de investigación educativa. Madrid: La Muralla, 2002. 502 p.

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Jiménez Calderón César Eduardo. (2010, noviembre 12). Research pathways in teaching english to speakers of other languages. Recuperado de http://www.gestiopolis.com/research-pathways-teaching-english-speakers-other-languages/
Jiménez Calderón, César Eduardo. "Research pathways in teaching english to speakers of other languages". GestioPolis. 12 noviembre 2010. Web. <http://www.gestiopolis.com/research-pathways-teaching-english-speakers-other-languages/>.
Jiménez Calderón, César Eduardo. "Research pathways in teaching english to speakers of other languages". GestioPolis. noviembre 12, 2010. Consultado el 30 de Mayo de 2015. http://www.gestiopolis.com/research-pathways-teaching-english-speakers-other-languages/.
Jiménez Calderón, César Eduardo. Research pathways in teaching english to speakers of other languages [en línea]. <http://www.gestiopolis.com/research-pathways-teaching-english-speakers-other-languages/> [Citado el 30 de Mayo de 2015].
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